Nokia’s auditor is elected annually by our shareholders at the Annual General Meeting. The Audit Committee of the Board prepares the proposal to the shareholders in respect of the appointment of the auditor based upon its evaluation of the qualifications and independence of the auditor to be proposed for election or re-election on an annual basis. PricewaterhouseCoopers Oy was re-elected as Nokia’s auditor for the fiscal year 2018 at the Annual General Meeting on May 30, 2018 PricewaterhouseCoopers Oy has also served as our independent auditor for each of the fiscal years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2017. Auditor fees and services The following table presents fees by type paid to PricewaterhouseCoopers for the years ended December 31: EURm 2017 2016 Audit Fees 1 25.3 31.3 Audit-Related Fees 2 1.8 1.8 Tax Fees 3 1.2 3.4 Other Fees 4 0.1 - Total 36.5 36.5 (1) Audit fees consist of fees incurred for the annual audit of the Group’s consolidated financial statements and the statutory financial statements of the Group’s subsidiaries. (2) Audit-related fees consist of fees billed for assurance and related services that are reasonably related to the performance of the audit or review of the Group’s financial statements or that are traditionally performed by the independent auditor, and include consultations concerning financial accounting and reporting standards; advice on tax accounting matters; advice and assistance in connection with local statutory accounting requirements; due diligence related to mergers and acquisitions; employee benefit plan audits and reviews; and audit procedures in connection with investigations in the pre-litigation phase and compliance programs. They also include fees billed for other audit services, which are those services that only the independent auditor can reasonably provide, and include the provision of comfort letters and consents in connection with statutory and regulatory filings and the review of documents filed with the SEC and other capital markets or local financial reporting regulatory bodies. (3) Tax fees include fees billed for: (i) services related to tax compliance including preparation and/or review of tax returns, preparation, review and/or filing of various certificates and forms and consultation regarding tax returns and assistance with revenue authority queries; customs duties reviews and advice; compliance reviews, advice and assistance on other indirect taxes; and transaction cost analysis; (ii) service related to tax audits; (iii) services related to individual compliance (preparation of individual tax returns and registrations for employees (non-executives), assistance with applying visa, residency, work permits and tax status for expatriates); (iv) services related to technical guidance on tax matters; (v) services related to transfer pricing advice and assistance with tax clearances; and (vi) tax consultation and planning (advice on stock-based remuneration, local employer tax laws, social security laws, employment laws and compensation programs and tax implications on short-term international transfers). (4) Other fees include fees billed for company establishments; liquidations; forensic accounting, data security, other consulting services and reference materials and services. Pre-approval policies and procedures for auditors’ fees The Audit Committee of the Board is responsible, among other matters, for the oversight of the external auditor subject to the requirements of Finnish law. The Audit Committee has adopted a policy regarding pre-approval of audit services performed by the external auditors of Nokia Group (including the principal auditor as well as any other auditor of a Nokia Group Company) and permissible non-audit services performed by the principal external auditor of the Nokia Group (the “Pre-approval Policy”). Under the Policy, proposed services either (i) may be pre-approved by the Audit Committee without a specific case-by-case services approvals (“general pre-approval”); or (ii) require the specific pre-approval of the Audit Committee (“specific pre-approval”). The Audit Committee may delegate either type of pre-approval authority to one or more of its members. The appendices to the Policy set out the audit, audit-related, tax and other services that have received the general pre-approval of the Audit Committee. All other audit, audit-related (including services related to internal controls and significant M&A projects), tax and other services are subject to a specific pre-approval from the Audit Committee. All service requests concerning generally pre-approved services will be submitted to the Corporate Controller who will determine whether the services are within the services generally pre-approved. The Policy and its appendices are subject to annual review by the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee establishes budgeted fee levels annually for each of the four categories of audit and non-audit services that are pre-approved under the Policy, namely, audit, audit-related, tax and other services. Requests or applications to provide services that require specific approval by the Audit Committee are submitted to the Audit Committee by both the independent auditor and the Corporate Controller. At each regular meeting of the Audit Committee, the independent auditor provides a report in order for the Audit Committee to review the services that the auditor is providing, as well as the status and cost of those services.