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Deloitte Oy, based in Helsinki, Finland, served as our auditor for the financial year ended 31 December 2023 and for the financial year ended 31 December 2022. The auditor is elected annually by our shareholders at the Annual General Meeting for the next financial year commencing after the election. On an annual basis, the Audit Committee of the Board prepares a proposal to the shareholders regarding the appointment of the auditor based upon its evaluation of the qualifications and independence of the auditor to be proposed for election.

The following table presents fees by type paid to Deloitte’s network of firms for the years ended 31 December:




Audit fees 1



Audit-related fees 2



Tax fees 3



All other fees 4






1. Audit fees consist of fees incurred for the annual audit of the Group’s consolidated financial statements and the statutory financial statements of the Group’s subsidiaries.

2. Audit-related fees consist of fees billed for assurance and related services that are reasonably related to the performance of the audit or review of the Group’s financial statements or that are traditionally performed by the independent auditor, and include consultations concerning financial accounting and reporting standards; advice and assistance in connection with local statutory accounting requirements; due diligence related to mergers and acquisitions; and audit procedures in connection with investigations in the pre-litigation phase and compliance programs. They also include fees billed for other audit services, which are those services that only the independent auditor can reasonably provide, and include the provision of comfort letters and consents in connection with statutory and regulatory filings and the review of documents filed with the SEC and other capital markets or local financial reporting regulatory bodies.

3. Tax fees include fees billed for: (i) services related to tax compliance including preparation and/or review of tax returns, preparation, review and/or filing of various certificates and forms and consultation regarding tax returns and assistance with revenue authority queries; compliance reviews, advice and assistance on other indirect taxes; and transaction cost analysis; (ii) services related to tax audits; (iii) services related to individual compliance (preparation of individual tax returns and registrations for employees (non-executives), assistance with applying for visas, residency, work permits and tax status for expatriates); (iv) services related to technical guidance on tax matters; (v) services related to transfer pricing advice and assistance with tax clearances; and (vi) tax consultation and planning (advice on stock-based remuneration, local employer tax laws, social security laws, employment laws and compensation programs and tax implications on short-term international transfers).

4. Other fees include fees billed for Company establishments, liquidations, forensic accounting, data security, other consulting services and reference materials and services.